Movements pattern of axis

The different kinematics of industrial robots are always based on the following three axis respectively joints:

FigureName and symbolRemark
Symbol prsimatic axis

Symbol prsimatic axis

Linear joint (L)
- L-axis can be positioned precisely
- mechanical solid
- low agility
- if its movement is orthogonal, it can be defined as orthogonal (type O)
Prismatic or sliding joint (P)

Prismatic or sliding joint (P)

pics is coming soonpic is coming soonRotational joint (type R)- fast moments are possible
- mechanical weak compared to L-axis
rotary joint

rotary joint

Revolving joint (type V)


Twisting joint (type T)
Spherical or ball joint (S)
for IR (still) not matter
Kinematics - Linked joints

Kinematics - Linked joints

Linked joints
No standard symbol exists.
- Precision can be reduced due to the tolerance of each joint
- Possibility to move is reduced by additional levers

Main- and hand-axis

... using the example of the universal robot

The axis 1,2 and 3 represent the main axis of the robot. By means of these axis it is possible for the robot to reach each point within the workspace.  The tool itself can be orientated by the axis 4,5 and 6 - also called auxiliary- or hand-axis.

The number of the axis stands for the order the axis are mounted.

Robot main and hand axis with symbols

Robot main and hand axis with symbols

Exercises Kinematics

1. Classify the devices shown below according to their kinematics!

L   Δ    Linear Joint,     R  Δ    Rotational Joint

Kinematics - joints

Kinematics – joints