With the ring topology, the devices are connected to each other in a ring. Although this means a short cable length, it has the disadvantage that if one subscriber fails, the entire network fails.
In the star topology, all end users are connected to one transmission device (e.g. switch, server, hub). If an end device fails, this has no impact on the remaining part of the network. However, if the transmission device fails, the entire network is of course down.
The tree topology has a trunk with many branches. The beginning is usually a higher-level network participant. This topology is often found in larger networks. With the tree topology, several topologies can be combined with each other.
There is no binding structure for the mesh topology. If a connection fails, there is usually an alternative route to continue communication without interruption. Full meshing provides the greatest reliability, but also requires the largest amount of cable.
The bus topology consists of a main line (called a bus) on which all end devices are connected and is therefore a point-to-multipoint connection. Terminating resistors at the ends prevent interference. A branch on the main line means that a failure of one subscriber has no effect on the other subscribers in the network. Data is sent via a main wire, which leads to a reduction in speed and if this wire is damaged, the entire network fails.