Electric Motor Braking Methods
As soon as the motor is connected to the mains, the brake is released. If the brake is de-energized, the motor is braked.
Advantage: Very fast braking
Countercurrent braking of induction motors
Countercurrent braking can be achieved by reversing the connections of the motor so that it tries to start in the reverse sense of rotation (by switching two supply lines).
Advantage: Very fast deceleration
Disadvantage: Large current consumption
Iinverse current = V + Vind
DC braking for three-phase induction motors
The stator of the switched off but still rotating motor is connected to a direct voltage. The direct current magnetic field induces voltages and thus causes currents that have a braking effect (=> Lenz's rule, eddy currents).
Disadvantage: Braking energy generates heat in the rotor
If the braking energy is converted into electrical energy, the machine operates as a generator during the breaking process. If the energy is supplied to the mains, this is referred to as regenerative braking.
Asynchronous motors can only work as generators according to this method if the rotor speed ist greater than the speed of the rotating magnetic field speed (RMF) or if torque and RMF have different signs.
This might also be of interest to you: 4-quadrant operation for electric motors