**3A1: ** A pneumatic main line consists of straight segments with the total length l_{total} = 24 m. With built three elbow (R = 2d), two rear flange (R = D) and a streamlined poppet valve. The diameter is 40 mm. Determine the equivalent pipe length.

**3A2:** Given is an effective pressure of 7 bar, a flow rate of 3000 l/min, an inner diameter D of 50 mm. Which length can have a compressed air line at most, so that the pressure drop of 0.3 bar is not exceeded?

**3A3: **Given is a volume flow rate Q of 50 m^{3}/min and a working pressure of 5 bar. Does a pipe of 200 m length and an inner diameter of 60 mm exceed the maximum tolerable pressure loss of 0.3 bar?