## Different hydraulic pumps

The hydraulic pump - a key element in the hydraulic system. Your task is to make a choice!

**Hydraulic pumps** have to press a fluid (usually oil) into the working circuit. Criteria for selecting a pump here are mainly:

- Required operating pressure
- Flow rate
- Constant flow rate or adjustable flow rate, possibly with two directions
- Noise

Hydraulic pumps can be broadly classified into:

### How to determine the effiency of a pump

Pumps usually convert electrical energy into hydraulic energy. Of course, energy conversion is always associated with loss. There are three categories of effiency to describe hydraulic pumps: Volumetric effiency, mechanical/hydraulic effiency and the overall effiency.

**Volumetric efficiency η**_{Vol }

_{Vol }

The Volumetric efficiency is determined by dividing the actual flow delivered by a pump at a certain pressureby its theoretical flow.

The design features piston diameter, piston stroke and piston number determine the theoretical delivery volume Vth for one revolution. Furthermore the speed of the drive as a further parameter determines the theoretical volume flow Q_{th} of the pump: **Q _{Th}**

**= Speed (rpm) * Displacement V**

_{th}(cc/rev)The Actual flow should be measured using a flow meter. So you can define the **Volumetric Efficiency η _{Vol} **as in the following:

** ****η _{Vol}**

**= Q**

_{A / }**Q**

_{th }**with**

**Q**

_{A}= Q_{th}- Q_{L}

V_{th}= theoretical volume delivered at one pump revolution

Q_{A }= Actual flow rate

Q_{L}= Internal Leakage Flow of the pump

Q_{th}= Theoretical flow rate

η_{Vol}= Volumetric efficiency

The volumetric efficiency can also be used to determine the condition of a hydraulic pump, based on its increase in internal leckage through wear or damage! But without reference to theoretical flow, the actual flow measured by the flow meter would be meaningless.

**Mechanical efficiency (due to friction losses)**

Since a pump is a mechanical component, mechanical friction losses also occur. Therefore, the torque actually required must be correspondingly greater than the theoretically calculated torque to drive the hydraulic pump: **T _{M} = T_{th} + T_{L}**

One can thus define a mechanical efficiency: **η**_{mech}** = T _{th}**

**/ T**

_{A}_{TA } = Actual torque delivered to the pump

_{Tth} = Theoretical Torque required to operate the pump

*Q _{th} = Theoretical flow rate*

*T*

_{L}= Torque losses due to friction**Overall efficiency of the pump**

Overall efficiency is used to calculate the drive power required by a pump at a given flow and pressure. In the field of automation the pump is usually driven by an electric drive. Due to the leakage losses and the mechanical losses P_{L} of the pump, the delivered hydraulic power P_{2} must be less than the input power P_{1}.

This results in the **Overall Efficiency ****η**** _{O}** of the pump:

**η**

_{O}=__P__/_{2}**P**

_{1}**or**

**η**

_{O}= η_{mech}* η_{vol}**Power flow of a hydraulic system**

With the help of a specific flow diagram, called Sankey diagram, the losses in a hydraulic system can be shown in a simple way:

**Work order:** Determe the efficiencies of a hydraulic pump

Fill in the missing information of the gear pump within the table and record the characteristic curves for the mechanical, volumetric and total efficiency.

Use the following link to **download **the **Excel spreadsheet** to calculate the different efficiencies: